Year-Over-Year YOY: What It Means, How It’s Used in Finance

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  1. By comparing the same months in different years, it is possible to draw accurate comparisons despite the seasonal nature of consumer behavior.
  2. Businesses will also use year-over-year data to calculate key financial performance metrics.
  3. This helps you understand macroeconomics, assess the financial well-being of companies, or analyze any measurable and trackable variables.
  4. The company also revealed plans to reorganize its North America and Asia-Pacific segments, removing several divisions from the former and reorganizing the latter into Kellogg Asia, Middle East, and Africa.

An excellent example of this is Meta’s (formerly Facebook) 2021 financial highlights from its investor page. The statement shows the year-over-year changes for a three-month period from the end of 2021 and the period December 2020 to December 2021. Net income, revenue, and sales are frequently quoted as a year-over-year measure and can be found on a company’s annual and quarterly financial statements. A company had $110 million in revenue in 2018, compared to $100 million in 2017.

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Carefully consider your financial situation, including investment objective, time horizon, risk tolerance, and fees prior to making any investment decisions. No level of diversification or asset allocation can ensure profits or guarantee against losses. 3 ways to invest money as a beginner Acorns is not engaged in rendering tax, legal or accounting advice. By comparing months in a year-over-year fashion, the comparison becomes more relevant than two consecutive months that are affected by varying seasonality or other factors.

Start with a free account to explore 20+ always-free courses and hundreds of finance templates and cheat sheets. In Year 1, we divide $104m by $100m and subtract one to get 4.0%, which reflects the growth rate from the preceding year. This indicates that Meta’s net income over the past year has grown significantly, but this growth had to come from the first nine months of the year because the last three months’ net income year-over-year was down 8%. Erika Rasure is globally-recognized as a leading consumer economics subject matter expert, researcher, and educator.

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Consumer Price Index (CPI)

YoY is a standard way to look at increases or decreases in specific funds or investments, the stock market, company revenues and inflation. If we multiply the prior period balance by (1 + growth rate assumption), we can calculate the projected current period balance. Under either approach, the year over year (YoY) growth rate in the property’s NOI is 20.0%, which reflects the percentage change between the two periods. The objective of performing a year over year growth analysis (YoY) is to compare recent financial performance to historical periods. Year-over-year is a helpful calculation for businesses and investors to look at, but it shouldn’t be the only calculation they use.

Both methods use the same formula as YOY, but with shorter gaps of 3 months and 1 month, respectively, between the figures. YOY growth remains unaffected by the seasonal patterns in consumer behavior, enabling more meaningful and precise performance comparisons over time. For example, seasonality (how certain seasons affect revenues) is not accounted for in a YoY analysis. Businesses located in holiday destinations such as ski resorts, hotels, and restaurants suffer from high seasonality, which should be accounted for in financial reports. Knowing this information can lead to significant cost savings by shutting down operations in the off-season.

Governance deals with a company’s leadership, executive pay, audits, internal controls, and shareholder rights. If you’re investing in the stock market, it’s a good idea to keep track of the performance of your investments. And YoY data allows you to track performance in a way that shows clear comparisons.

If a company reported a 35% increase in revenue in December, the data would provide less insight than a report showing that revenue increased 20% in the most recent December to December period. The latter period is a year-over-year measure that indicates revenue is growing on a yearly basis rather than just for the holiday season. For instance, in retail businesses, fourth-quarter sales (October to December in the calendar year) are almost always stronger than first-quarter sales (from January to March). So most retail businesses will show a revenue increase from the first quarter of a year to the fourth quarter of the same year. But if you compare this year’s fourth-quarter sales to last year’s fourth-quarter sales, you can see whether the business is actually increasing in revenue or just benefiting from a normal seasonal sales increase. Understanding this data can help the management team make important decisions on budgeting, fundraising, and capital allocation.

Why is YOY important?

Because of this, it makes much more sense to compare quarterly financials on a YoY basis. It gives a more accurate view of whether the numbers are growing or declining. Another company had $50 million in earnings in the fourth quarter of 2018, but they had $100 million in earnings in the fourth quarter of 2017. The articles and research support materials available on this site are educational and are not intended to be investment or tax advice.

She is a financial therapist and transformational coach, with a special interest in helping women learn how to invest. Year-to-date (YTD) looks at a change relative to the beginning of the year (usually Jan. 1). YTD can provide a running total, while YOY can provide a point of comparison. On the other hand, companies that have declining revenue and earnings tend to see significant reductions in their stock prices. If you were to compare a retailer’s Q3 and Q4 sales, you might think that the company grew a lot in Q4.

YoY (Year-over-Year): Definition, Formula, and Examples

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Someone on our team will connect you with a financial professional in our network holding the correct designation and expertise. The most common application of Year-Over-Year data is called Year Over Year growth, or YOY growth. Please add REtipster.com to your Ad Blocker white list, to receive full access to website functionality.

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